Posts tagged as web
- 23 January 2023
I’ve spent much of 2022 working with SvelteKit as one of my primary development environments. Kit hit its 1.0 release in December 2022. I’ve spent some time evangelising it to developer colleagues, many of whom may not have encountered it, and a year with Kit feels like a good time to summarise that time, and explain why I’m spending so much time with it.
First, we should start with Svelte.
Svelte is a reactive component framework for building web front-ends. Think of it like React or Vue. To the eye, it resembles Vue much more than React: it uses single-file components, broken into script, markup, and styles. Unlike Vue, it uses a templating language with specific tags, rather than ‘special’ attributes on HTML elements.
Throughout the entire project, it’s clear that where possible, it wants to fit into the web as it is, using standards where it can, and syntax or patterns developers know.
There are couple of things that might surprise you coming from other frameworks.
Firstly: reactivity uses two-way binding. Obviously, this is an easy shortcut to a footgun, and might sound smelly or unsafe to you. But Svelte makes it safe, and it leads to terser syntax and makes it easier to write code that states your intent in a literate way, rather than dancing around one-way React-style binding.
Secondly - and this is partly why that two-way binding is safe: Svelte is a compiler. When you visit a site that uses it, you’re not downloading all of Svelte to use the page; Svelte compiles the site down to only the script needed to make it run. And in doing so, throws out all the Svelte-specific syntax or code, makes sure you’re not doing anything impossible. It emits compact, fast code.
(This is all because, thirdly, Svelte is really a language)
If that’s Svelte, what is SvelteKit (or “Kit”) for short?
SvelteKit is to Svelte as Next is to React, or Nuxt is to Vue. It’s a full-stack, isomorphic framework. That means: you write your code once, but it could run on the front-end or back-end.
By default, when you hit a URL, the server renders that page, and serves it to you - and then future navigation uses the History API and requests just JSON from the backend, rendering the front-end reactively. The documentation doesn’t really use the phrase “full-stack”, and perhaps that term has served its purpose. The technology skews towards the front-end, as most site frameworks built on top of component frameworks do - but it’s definitely everything you need to make a site. The answer to “but where does it run” is “yes”.
At this point I imagine somebody sucking their teeth and having opinions about Single-Page Apps (I sure do). But SvelteKit is much more interesting than that.
SvelteKit sites build using an adapter system. Adapters transform your development code to code suited for production deployment in a particular environment. The same code can be deployed to different infrastructures with different adapters.
In development, you work against an Express server, and you could make a production build that uses this approach using
adapter-node, emitting an app you can just run with
node index.jsin your
builddirectory. Put it onto Heroku, or behind an nginx proxy, and off you go.
Or maybe you just want an entirely static site - you have no dynamic code at all, and could bake the whole thing out.
But most interesting are the adapters for modern “JAMstack” hosts, like Netlify or Vercel. Build a site with
adapter-netlifyand all your static pages will get prerendered as before… and your dynamic pages, or back-end endpoints, will all get turned into (eg) Netlify Functions, to run on Lambdas as appropriate.
(I like this because it pushes back against one of my issues with JAMStack sites: you control the front-end, and when it comes to anything resembling a back-end, you just give somebody else your credit card details and use their API. Kit makes it easier for front-end-preferring developers to write their own tiny parts of back-end code, integrated into modern front-end-preferring hosting platforms. Obviously you’ll still need some kind of storage, but I like that you’re not having to jump between cloud/lambda functions in one place, and front-end code in another: your application should be all one thing, and you should write as much of it as you can).
Whilst there are always going to be host-specific issues, this somewhat decouples application design from application build; a kind of future-proofing (not to mention the ability to change your mind later, as a static site develops more dynamic features). You can even throw away all the static pages and dynamic routing and make a classic SPA that lives only in the client, if you really want to.
Standards all the way down
But what I enjoy most is how “of the web” it all feels. One of Kit’s key design philosophies is using standards when they exist. That means
fetchthroughout, polyfilled on the server, natively in the client; that means
Responseobjects on raw server endpoints; that means Form Actions that, by default, simply
POSTto an endpoint and redirect, before the documentation goes on to show you how the
enhancedirective can be used to start dynamically updating the page without a reload for those users who have scripts enabled. As a developer who likes his POST and GET, this is the way. A user on the discussion forums was trying to work out how to call server-side functions from the client, and I pointed out they just had to
POSTto their paths; I could feel their eyes bulge a little, before they then realised that perhaps this was how it always should be.
The tooling is particularly good - especially its use of static typing, and its VS Code extension. It’s lovely to return a typed object on the serverside, and have your front-end components pass that typing all the way down - or to raise an IDE error when they’re not quite getting what they expected.
And integrating SvelteKit with existing code and libraries is lovely, because Kit does so little. From the outside, it might not look like the ecosystem is nearly as big as React’s. But that doesn’t necessarily matter: bringing existing libraries into Svelte seems much easier than bringing them into React land. A colleague I’d introduced to SvelteKit confirmed this after doing exactly that on a project not two months after starting using it. “It turns out I didn’t need the libraries,“ he said, and just wrote his own integration with a handful couple of lines; a far cry from trying to find yet another plugin to
One reason I often pick it is the familiarity of all the moving parts. There’s something about the syntax that makes it so easy and welcoming to pick up for newcomers. I pick Svelte often because I can get other developers who know HTML/CSS/JS|TS up and running on it really fast. It’s even more ‘natural’ to work in than Vue, and especially so than JSX/React.
And finally, the reason I feel confident in it is… I like the taste of its core team. Rich Harris - ex-New York Times, now at Vercel - is thoughtful, considered, and has what I think is good taste. When it comes to frameworks, taste is important: if you don’t agree with the core philosophy of the project, which inevitably means the taste of the project leads… you likely never will. But I do - that focus on straightforward tools to build moderate-sized products, focusing on One Way To Do Things, an emphasis on excellent documentation and (especially) interactive tutorials, and above all, something that feels more like the Web: standards all the way down.
I’ve used it recently on a few projects:
- a blog rewrite, handling thousands of pages across 10 or 12 template files; primarily focusing on static delivery of key pages, and then dynamically rendering the long tail of the site
- a content site that, on the content⟷software scale, was firmly at the ‘content’ edge, having been written in Jekyll. Rewriting it in Kit allowed us to move it a few notches towards software. It became easy to, in a mainly Markdown-driven site, still embed dynamic or interactive components inside Markdown articles - or reach out to external services for certain components based on page-level metadata. We began rendering this statically, and moved to using a dynamic renderer when the ability to serve it statically wasn’t quite as ready as we hoped.
- highly interactive prototypes of mobile UI and apps, using all the features of a modern browser (touch events, MediaRecorder and MediaStream APIs, gestures) to build a rich, interactive prototype.
It works well for all of these. In particular, its static-generation performance is… pretty competitive with some of the dedicated JS Static-Site Generators.
Mainly, though I like using a modern, isomorphic-style component-based web framework that still feels of the web, still interested in pages and URLs and HTTP and accessibility, whilst allowing me to use modern tooling and the reactive pattern. I also continue to love the enthusiasm for it that everyone I share it with has. It’s not my only hammer, nor is it the only thing I plan to use going forward (and I’m still going to reach for Rails when I’ve got CRUD and data-heavy applications) - but it’s been a great tool to work with this year, and I hope to share it with more developers in time, and work with it again.